Born in 1879 in Berlin, Germany.
Served in the German Navy, rising to the rank of lieutenant before retiring. Took a job as guide on a Hamburg-America ocean liner, taking the rich on cruises around the world. Left the cruise at the brink of World War I, moving to Berlin and volunteering for service in the German Navy but was sent to German Naval Intelligence, because of his ability to speak english. Was sent to England to spy on the British fleet.and provide an assessment of its size and battle-worthiness. Lody was promised that this mission would be a one-time event, after which he was free to return to his job on the cruise lines, having fully satisfied his duty to his country.Was trained in espionage and sent to Norway under the name “Charles Inglis.” He continued on to Scotland in 1914 and monitored the British fleet there, counting the number of warships and estimating their military value.
Traveling around the British territories, he continued gathering information, sketching buildings and machinery and assessing troop readiness. Eventually he returned to England, whereupon he was arrested and court-martialed. Confined in the Tower of London, he was found guilty of spying and sentenced to death. On November 6, 1914, Lody was executed by a firing squad at the Tower of London.Read More »
Born Krystyna Skarbek in Warsaw, Poland in 1915 , the daughter of Count Jerzy Skarbek, a Polish aristocrat and the granddaughter of a wealthy Jewish banker in the Goldfeder family. Was educated in a convent in Warsaw and at age 17 was crowned Miss Poland after winning a beauty contest.
Was married briefly but divorced her husband soon thereafter. Remarried in , this time to Georg Gizycki, a writer who was twice her age. After they were married, they were living in Africa, where he was working on a book, when Nazi Germany invaded Poland in 1939. The couple immediately traveled to Britain and she volunteered to work with British intelligence services (her husband joined the Free Polish Services and was later killed in combat).
Was assigned to Budapest where she worked under the cover of being a journalist. Her real purpose was to aid Polish refugees to escape across the border. An excellent skier, she skied several times across the Tatra Mountains into Poland to retrieve escaped Polish prisoners of war and bring them out of the country. She would go on to establish several escape routes, bringing Polish refugees back into England.
Was sent to parachute training in Cairo, Egypt and would use this training for numerous jumps into Nazi-occupied France. Was also assigned to gather information on German troop readiness in Poland as well as information on German armaments, including a new antitank gun. She traveled several times between England and Poland delivering this information. On her trip into Poland, she was stopped by German soldiers. She reportedly pulled the pins out of two live grenades and told the soldiers that if the they attempted to take her into custody, she would drop the grenades, killing all of them. The soldiers allowed her to retreat to safety.
Was parachuted into southern France in 1944 and was used as a courier, using the name Pauline (and sometimes Jacqueline) Armand, delivering messages and materials that could not be transmitted via radio or telegraph to Cairo.
Granville was often used to spread propaganda, insisting that England would not abandon Poland in its fight against Nazi Germany and convincing Italian troops to desert their German allies. She worked for a period of time under Colonel Francois Cammaerts, head of the 10,000 troop maquis in Rhone Valley. When he and two allies were captured in Digne and imprisoned as spies, Granville reported met with the Nazi commandant and convinced him that if he did not release the three men immediately, he would be shot by the approaching Allied forces (A more likely scenario is that she claimed to be the niece of British General Montgomery, and threatened two local Digne liaisons. They demanded that she write out a statement clearing them of collaborating with the Nazi and also demanding monetary payment, both of which were accommodated).
As soon as the war ended, Granville was released from her intelligence duties and was forced to find any work she could. She worked for a time as switchboard operator at the India Hotel in London, then as a saleswoman at Harrod’s department store and later an attendant at the Paddington hotel.
In 1951 she took a job as a stewardess on the ocean liner, Winchester Castle which sailed between England, Australia and South Africa. Her superior on the liner was a steward named Dennis Muldowney. Muldowney who suffered from schizophrenia became obsessed with Granville and declared his love for her. After she rebuffed his advance several times, Granville quit her job and moved to London. Muldowney followed her there, quitting his job and taking a position with the Reform Club in Winchester. Again professing his love for her, Muldowney was told by Granville in no uncertain terms that she wanted him to leave her alone. After this final rejection, Muldowney, began stalking her. On June 15, 1952, Muldowney spotted her walking down there stairs in her hotel and rushing to her, stabbed her to death. Muldowney was sentenced to death for the murder and was hanged in September 1952 at Pentonville Prison.
Granville was buried with the French Croix de Guerre, a medal from Poland, the George Medal for Special Services, the Order of the British Empire and the badge of the French Resistence.
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Conrad was a noncommissioned officer in the United States Army, a Sgt, First Class from Sebring, Ohio. He was assigned West Germany where he served as the classified documents custodian to the 8th Infantry Division of the army. He was tasked with maintaining and protecting top secret documents related to the military plans in case of a war with the Soviet bloc.
His superior at the time was Zoltan Szabo, another U.S. Army Sgt. First Class who was a naturalized U.S. citizen from Hungary, but was also a Colonel in the Hungarian Military intelligence. In 1975 Szabo approached Conrad about helping him to provide information to Hungarian and Czechoslovakian intelligence services. Conrad agreed and began delivering information from the vaults housing the top secret documents he was supposed to be protecting. In return he received payments over the next ten years which allegedly reached into the millions of dollars. Court records demonstrated that by 1978 he had a swiss safety deposit box filled with gold bars.Szabo introduced Conrad to Hungarian brothers Imre and Sandor Keresik. With their help, Conrad was able to set up a spy ring that operated for more than 10 years. The ring worked so well that it is sill unknown how many people were involved in it.
In 1983, Conrad recruited Sgt. Roderick Ramsey to help him gather and disseminate the classified documents. Ramsey, who official was serving as Conrad’s assisted agreed to do so and aided Conrad for the next two years. In addition to Ramsey, other members of the Szabo-Conrad spy ring were Jeffrey Rondeau, Jeffrey Gregory and Kelly Therese Warren. Ramsey would allege that more than ten others people served the ring including one military officer who would eventually reach the rank of General.
More than 30,000 documents were passed over the course of a ten year period. The documents involved were among the most valuable in the world to the Eastern Bloc. Among these were NATO wartime general defense plans which indicated the positions of many military units and the description of where they were to be deployed incase of war, what their tasks were and what areas they would defend. It also included NATO strategies and nuclear weapon sites, all of which worked its way through the Eastern BLOC intelligence services, all the way up to the KGB.Around 1979, the United States was alerted by Vladimir Vasilyev, an asset of the CIA, that the Soviet Union had U.S. war plans in their possession. U.S. Army Counter-Intelligence began looking for the person passing the secrets and did an analysis that led them to the V corps. It took several years but finally, in 1986, they narrow their lists of suspects down to Conrad, based in part of his elaborate standard of living.
In 1983, Conrad was arrested by the Federal Republic of Germany and charged with engaging in espionage with the Czechoslovakian and Hungarian governments. Because he had retired from the U.S. Army and was living in West Germany, neither the military nor the FBI had jurisdiction to arrest him. Thus they had to turn to the West German authorities to do so. He was found guilty on June 6, 1990 and because he was viewed as the head of the spy ring was sentenced to life imprisonment. It is estimated that he received over $1.2 million over the years in return for the information he passed. In passing the sentence, Chief Judge Ferdinand Schuth said that Conrad enabled the real possibility that “If war had broken out between NATO and the Warsaw Pact, the West would have faced certain defeat. NATO would have quickly been forced to choose between capitulation or the use of nuclear weapons on German territory. Conrad’s treason had doomed the Federal Republic to become a nuclear battlefield.”
In addition to Conrad’s sentence, Rondeau and Gregory were sentenced to 18 years each, Warren was sentenced to 25 years and Szabo was given a 10 month suspended sentence, in return for testifying and identifying documents that were passed to the Hungarian government.
Clyde Conrad died in Diez prison in in Koblenz, Germany on January 8, 1998, the victim of heart failure. He was 50 years old.Read More »
Born in 1879 in Westphalia, Germany, the son of a member of the wealthy Junker class.
Sent to New York City in 1915 where he worked at the German Consulate. He was assigned to act as a spymaster, overseeing agents assigned to disrupt the conveyance of military supplies from American manufacturers to Britain (the United States was a neutral party at the time while Britain was at war with Germany).
Under his direction, agents set up phony American armaments firms and contracted with Allied countries to provide them with arms. With the Allies hopelessly waiting, the agents would make excuses for continuous delays, with the arms never being delivered. Other schemes he set into place had firms buying up gunpowder in huge quantities which preventing it from becoming available for the Allies.After being saddled with a number of incompetent and reckless agents, Papen was directed to oversee numerous sabotage efforts against U.S. interests. He steadfastly refused, but did set up a scheme to blow up part of the Canadian Pacific Railway in order to thwart the efforts of Canadian troops to reach England to fight on behalf of the British. The scheme failed and the saboteurs were captured.
Papen also attempted to recruit German nationals living in the United States and persuading them to return to Germany to fight on behalf of their mother country. When this came to the attention of U.S. authorities, Papen was ordered to leave the United States.
Was assigned for a period of time to serve as a military attache in Spain where he came into contact with Mata Hari. Was later sent to Palestine where he was to aid the Turks in their war against England and especially in tracking down and crushing the insurgent troops under the leadership of T.H. Lawrence. These attempts were unsuccessful.Became politically active after his return to Germany and eventually rose to the position of German chancellor. In 1939, after the ascension of Adolph Hitler, Papen was appointed the German Ambassador to Turkey. He once again acted as a spymaster in that country, competing against Allied spymasters for information.
In 1943, was introduced to Elyeza Bazna, an Albanian working as a valet for the British Ambassador in Ankara. Bazna offered to provide Papen with secret British documents and information in return for money. Papen approved and Bazna was given the codename “Cicero.” Bazna’s information was invaluable, highly detailed and accurate, even covering meetings between U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Allied plans for the invasion of Europe.
Bazna was compromised as Fritz Kopke, a German national working as an American agent, came across his name in a message from Papen to German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop and passed it on to Allen Dulles who thereafter passed it on to British Intelligence head Claude Dansey.
After the war, Von Papen was arrested and tried for war crimes at the Nuremberg Tribunal. It was found that his actions were not deemed to have reached a level suffucient to rise to “conspiracy to commit crimes against peace”as he was charged. He was thus found not guilty by the Nuremberg Tribunal. He was, however, arrested by the new German government and charged with various crimes committed during the Nazi regime. He was found guilty and sentenced to eight years in prison. Upon release, he wrote an autobiography documenting his activities.
Papen died in 1979.
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Born 1888 in Dresden, Germany, the son of a protestant parishioner.
Served as a General Staff officer in the German Army during World War I. Was a member of Reichswehr, the limited German Army allowed as part of the Versailles Treaty. Served in the German War Ministry beginning in 1933, later becoming a Colonel, where he headed the Second Department of the Abwehr (oversaw records of German intelligence agents).
A man of moral character, Oster felt disdain for the Nazi movement and contempt for Nazi Fuehrer Adolph Hitler. Aligned himself with other high-ranking officers who felt the same (including spymasters Wilhelm Canaris and Erwin von Lahousen). Clandestinely aided in the escape of Jews from Germany by funneling money to them on the pretense of sending them out to spy in Switzerland.Manfred Roeder of the Reich Military court launched an investigation into Army personnel working against the Nazi Party and discovered notes indicating Oster’s involvement in helping the Jews escape as well as others which detailed attempts to negotiate a separate peace negotiation with with the German Army and the Allies (brokered through the Vatican). Canaris was forced to dismiss Oster.
Oster continued his activities, attempting to oust Hitler. He participated in the ill-fated plot to explode a bomb on a plane in which Hitler would be a passenger as well as the attempt to detonate a bomb during a meeting (both attempts failed). As conspirators were rounded up, Oster was at the top of the list and was immediately arrested.
Oster was executed on April 9, 1945 at the Flossenburg concentration camp.Read More »
Born in 1906 in St. Louis, Missouri, United States. Became a very popular performer in musical revues on Broadway in 1924. Moved to Paris, France in 1925 to appear in the musical revue La Revue Negre. Became a citizen of France in 1937.
Very well known for her energetic dancing and scantily clad risqué musical performances. Was one of the most well-known stars in all of Europe, Volunteered for the French Red Cross at the outbreak of the war between France and Germany in 1940. Was recruited by French Chief of Counterespionage Jacques Abtey to serve as a secret informer.After the fall of France, Baker served as a member of the French Resistance. Relayed information to the French Resistance (as well as to British and U.S. agents) that she gleaned from conversations she overheard between German officers attending her performances. Also exposed French officials working for the Germans. Also smuggled secret documents written in invisible ink on her musical sheets. Was rewarded for her actions by the French government when she was awarded the Croix de Guerre and the Medal of Resistance in 1945 and was acknowledged by U.S. General George S. Patton for her valiant efforts.
Died in Paris in 1975.
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Crabb and his mother Beatrice and father Hugh lived in poverty. Nicknamed “Buster,” Crabb served as a merchant seaman as World War II began and was commissioned into the Royal Nay Patrol service in 1941 after first serving as an army gunner. Because of an eye injury he was unable to travel to sea and volunteered for the dangerous task of mine and bomb disposal. He was assigned to Gibraltar in 1942 and aided other Navy divers in protecting British ships against Italian saboteurs. Italian frogmen ambitiously sought to install limpet mines to the hulls of British ships.
Initially Crabb was assigned to disarm bomb removed from ships, but he eventually asked to be trained as a diver. He was a quickly learner and received numerous commendations, including a George Medal. He was eventually promoted to the rank of Lieutenant Commander. Became the Principal Diving Officer for Northern Italy in 1943. A few years later he was stationed to Palestine and in 1948 he left the Royal Navy.For a few years Crabb were in the private sector working for the Atomic Weapons Research Establishment at Aldermaston. He also worked with searching through sunken Spanish galleons.
In 1952 Crabb returned to active duty and was assigned to frogman duties in various ports. He searched and investigated sunken Royal Navy submarines. Married Margaret Player and continued on as a frogman, and in 1955 worked with another frogman, Sydney Knowles, investigated the hull of a Soviet ship, the Sverdlov.
Crabb was recruited by MI6 and on April 19, 1956, he was assigned to perform surveillance on a Soviet cruiser, . The cruiser, the Ordzhonikidze, had carried Soviet premier Nikolai Bulganin and future premier Nikita Khrushchev into Portsmouth Harbor in England on a diplomatic mission. Crabb was inspecting the hull of the ship but did not check in with his MI6 contact. He was never seen again.On June 9, 1957, a body was found in a frogman outfit off the coast of Pilsey Island. The body was missing its head and both hands and thus made identification impossible. Neither Margaret Player (the two has divorced years earlier) nor his girlfriend, Pat Rose, could identify him. A subsequent examination by a coroner announced that it was most likely Crabb’s.
Speculation swirled around Crabb’s disappearance. Rumors abounded that he was captured by the Soviets, that he was a double-agent and defected to the Soviet union and even that he was shot by the British services. However, in 1990, Joseph Zwerkin, a former Soviet Intelligence agent explaiend that Soviet security saw Crabb as he was inspecting the Ordzhonikidze and a sniper shot him in the water. The fallout from the disappearance was immense. Crabb was operating under the guidance of MI6 which is governed to operate outside of Britain while MI5 operates within the country. Although MI6 attempted to cover-up the operation. British Prime Minister Anthony Eden forced the resignation of John Alexander Sinclair, the Director-General of MI6.
British government documents related to the Crabb case will not be released until 2057.
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Born on January 1, 1914 in Russia, the daughter of an Indian father and an American mother. Her father was assigned to spread Sufi (a sect of Indian Muslim) philosophy and his travels took him to Russia where he became friends with the writer Leo Tolstoy and the mystic Rasputin. The family moved to London in 1917 and then settled in France in 1920.
After the death of her father in 1921, Inayat began attending school, eventually entering the Sorbonne where she studied juvenile psychology. Unfortunately she suffered a nervous breakdown at this time. She returned to academics entering Ecole de Langues Orientales at the University of Paris in 1937.She began writing for children soon after, first for radio broadcast and then for a children’s newspaper she founded called Bel Age. Upon the German invasion of France in 1940 she fled to England with her family. Her brother joined the Royal Navy and she became a member of the Women’s Auxiliary Air Force.
She entered the Special Operations Executive and was trained as a radio operator. She was inserted into France to work with the French underground using the codename “Madeline.” and radioed information to the allies regarding resistance activities as well as providing intelligence for allied operations.
Working under the name Jeanne-Marie Regnier she rode her bicycle to the National School of Agriculture at Grignon (which served as her spy network’s headquarters) everyday, delivering messages from London and receiving new messages to send back to London.
On July 1, 1943, Noor arrived at the headquarters late, only to see almost a hundred SS and Gestapo agents entering the building. She watched helplessly as they led her fellow comrades from the facility and took them into custody. Returning to Paris she reported what she had witnessed but it was too late to fully warn her superiors as additional raids occurred. Most of the top SOE officials and resistance workers had been captured and were now in custody.
Because she had become a key figure in the SOE work, Maurice Buckmaster, the Chief of SOE operations feared for Noor’s life and ordered her back to England. Noor refused, staying on in France, determined to continue acting as a much needed radio operator.- For the next three months, Inayat Khan moved from location to location, transmitting messages late in the night to avoid detection.
Her courage and quick thinking helped her to get out of predicaments several times but eventually she was betrayed by a French woman who reported her activity to the Gestapo for 500 pounds.She was caught in the act by Gestapo agents as she tried to send a message to London. She was taken into custody and immediately escaped through a window, trying to move from rooftop to rooftop but was recaptured.Noor was subjected to extreme interrogation but refused to talk and bravely requested to be shot immediately. When the Gestapo confined her two a room in its headquarters, she collaborated with two other prisoners and escaped from the facility. Just as they were making their getaway from the compound, air raids sirens caused Germans officers to conduct a security check, exposing Noor and her compatriots and prompting their recapture.
Inayat Khan was transferred to Pforzheim Prison in Germany where she was kept manacled to the wall in order to prevent further escape attempts. She was later transferred to Dachau and was ordered to be executed by SS Chief Heinrich Himmler She was executed on September 12, 1944 along with three other women and was posthumously awarded the George Cross by the French government.
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Born Marthe Betenfeld in Blamont, France on August 15, 1889, the daughter of a brewer.
An excellent student, she excelled at languages, eventually learning to speak English, Spanish and German in addition to her native French. She was also adventurous, excelling as an aviator, almost unheard of for a woman at that time.
Married Henri Richer, a pilot serving in World War I, in 1914. Was approached by French counter-intelligence at about this time and was recruited for service based on her language skills as well as her daring personality. After her husband was killed in battle, Marthe distracted herself from her grief by traveling to Spain to undertake intelligence duties Richard as an adaptation of her late husband’s name). Became a familiar face within the social elite of German society within Spain and was introduced to the acting chief of the Abwehr. He suggested to Richer that she should work as an agent of the Abwehr, returning to France and spying on behalf of the Germans. Richer told him that she would only consider doing so if the offer was extended by the head of the Abwehr in France himself. So eager were the Germans that they agreed and the offer was so extended. Fortuitously, the Abwehr chief in France, Baron Hans Kron. Kron, who was also the German naval attache in Madrid, fell in love with Richer and they became lovers soon thereafter.Richer was shipped off to France to gain information on armaments production. She was provided with a new kind of security device, an invisible ink that was contained within a capsule the size of a grain of rice. Upon arrival, she disclosed the invisible ink to her French superiors and informed them that she was involved with Kron. She was given doctored information about armaments production and was sent back to Spain.
In Spain, she re-established her relationship with her lover. She also learned that he had been involved with Mata Hari, the notorious spy who was staying at the same hotel as Richer. Threatening to break off her relationship with Kron, Richer was able to draw the lovestruck attache even deeper into her web, thus gaining access to even more secret information, which she passed back to the French, including revelations about submarine development.Richer was sent across the globe on missions but eventually grew tired of the deception and the pressure. Eventually she decided to return home to France but first confessed her duplicity to Baron Kron. After retiring from active service, Richer was generally ignored by the French government, based in part from unfavorable attention to her long-running relationship with the German attache. Eventually, however, her services were recognized and she was awarded the Legion of Honor medal in 1933.
Took part in the French resistence during World War II and died in 1982.
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Born Margaret Gertrude Zelle on August 7, 1876 in Leeuwarden, Holland.
Father Adam Zelle, a Dutch hatter and his Javanese wife Antje van der Meulen. The family was very wealthy and well to do and raised her in a very happy home with a comfortable lifestyle. After her mother’s death in 1890, she was sent by her father to live in a convent. Briefly attending a teaching school but was expelled after allegedly having sex with the school’s headmaster.
In 1894, answered a “lonely hearts club” advertisement placed by John Rudolph MacLeod, a Dutch colonial officer in the Dutch East Indies, who was 20 years her senior.
The couple married in 1895 and moved to Java where they lived until 1901. The couple’s early years were anything but ideal as she engaged in scandalous affairs and he often slept with other women in their house while she was in the next room.The couple had a son named Norman in January 1896, but the child died, believed to have been poisoned by a former house servant with a vendetta against John. They also had another child, a daughter named Jeanne. At this time, it is rumored, the couple engaged in a blackmail scheme by which Margaret would entice a wealthy landowner into her bed, whereupon John would storm angrily into the room, threatening the man with scandal and then blackmailing him for a lucrative sum (some of the details were reveal during the couple’s divorce proceedings). Despite their money schemes, the marriage was filled with quarrels and John physically abused her. The couple divorced sometime between 1902 and 1904.
With custody of her daughter, Margaret struggled financially, especially after her husband stopped ceased sending support payments. What money she did have she used on dancing lessons, learning the Oriental dances she had seen in Java. After sending her daughter to live with relatives, she embarked upon her new career, performing the mysterious dances of the god Siva. Her early efforts were unsuccessful, as she was unable to secure bookings and was alleged to have worked as a prostitute for a period of time.
When World War I broke out, Mata Hari had decided to engage in another exciting profession – espionage. Having already engaged in numerous affairs with numerous wealthy men and counted many of the most important people in the military and intelligence community as her paramours.
The Chief of the Berlin Police Department, Traugott von Jagow was one of them and he suggested to her that she include pillow talk in her meeting with her important clients, obtaining secrets as well as money from them. She was given the German code number H.21, which would prove significant years later.Traveled throughout Europe, attending embassy functions and social occasions meetings military and political contacts. Having seduced the men, she would pry information about troops and weaponry as well as political alliances and military tactics. She reported this information back to Jagow and was positioning herself neatly when the War began.
Having been granted German citizenship, she was ordered to make her way into France where she began passing secrets to the Germans. Although French agents kept her under surveillance, they were unable to collect sufficient evidence against her to arrest her. Much of her information, at this point, was vital, helping to prepare the Germans develop their strategy to overpower the French troops.
French counterintelligence officers finally grew wise to her and she was confronted by Captain Georges Ladoux. Ladoux informed her that he was going to have her deported back to Holland, whereupon she shocked him by proposing to spy on behalf of France and against Germany. Bragging that she had access to high level German intelligence, she offered that she could make it available to France. In so offering this aid, she destroyed her original alibi that she was not involved in espionage nor privy to any intelligence. Ladoux, pretended to take her up on her offer and sent her off to Brussels with the names of six French agent with whom she could make contact. Almost immediately thereafter, Ladoux received information from the British that one of the six agents had been arrested by the Germans, thus convincing him that she was a considerable security risk and ordered her arrested immediately.
German intelligence had come to find that Mata Hari had been identified and therefore compromised. She was therefore of little use to them. After offering her services to other Foreign nations, she boldly demanded from Jagow that she be paid in full for her espionage activities. Jagow ordered her to return to France where she would be paid. French authorities arrested her on February 13, 1917 and took her to the Fauborg Saint-Denis prison.
Mata Hari was tried for espionage in July 1917, represented by one of the top attorneys in France. Although much of the evidence against her was weak, French authorities were able to show that the payment she returned to France to collect was designated for German agent H.21. The “H” signified that she was an agent for Germany before World War I started. She argued that the payment was for her sexual services and not for espionage. The jury was unmoved, quickly returning a guilty verdict and sentencing her to death. On October 15, 1917 a calm Mata Hari faced a firing squad and was executed.
Historians believe that Mata Hari, despite her notoriety and name recognition was a rather incompetent and ineffective spy, caught up in the excitement of her own fascination. Most believe, as did much of the intelligence community of her time, that she was in way over her head and did not realize the ramifications of her duplicitous activities, naively believing that she could charm her way out of any situation. In later years, however, Mata Hari has gained many supporters. In 1932, the French government admitted that the evidence and therefore the case against her was negligible at best while the German government labeled her contributions to its war efforts as insubstantial.
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